Oxy-Fuel Cutting -
Oxy-fuel cutting is a cost-effective method of plate edge preparation for bevel and groove welding. It can be used to easily cut rusty and scaled plates and only requires moderate skill to produce successful results. The oxy-fuel gas cutting process creates a chemical reaction of oxygen with the base metal at elevated temperatures to sever the metal. The necessary temperature is maintained by a flame from the combustion of a selected fuel gas mixed with pure oxygen.
The process is based on the rapid formation of iron oxide which occurs when a high-pressure pure oxygen stream is introduced into the cutting envelope. The iron is quickly oxidized by the high purity oxygen and heat is liberated by this reaction. The oxygen stream and combusted gas transport the molten oxide away and the metal in its path burns, producing a narrow cut known as a kerf. Continued iron oxide formation requires large volumes of oxygen to be delivered to the cut zone at a controlled preset pressure. The intense heat produced by this reaction sustains the cutting process and the production of the cut.
Common oxy-fuel cutting applications are limited to carbon and low alloy steel. These materials can be cut economically, and the setup is quick and simple. For manual oxy-fuel gas cutting there is no electric power requirement and equipment costs are low. Materials from 1/16in (1.6mm) to 4in (102mm) thick are commonly cut using manual oxy-fuel gas cutting, while pantograph cutting can cut a maximum thickness of 600mm.
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC) -
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC) severs metal by melting a localized area of the material with a constricted electric arc that removes the molten material with a high velocity jet of hot ionized gas.
This process allows to generate and concentrate on a single point temperatures up to 28.000°C and can be used to cut every kind of electrically conductive metal if its thickness and shape can be completely penetrated by the Plasma jet. The process can be also used to cut non-ferrous materials, it is faster than Oxycutting in ferrous material with a maximum thickness of 80 mm. The plasma cutting represents the most economical option for different industrial applications.The equipment for plasma cutting available on the market consists of a wide range of choices depending on the tightness of the materials to cut; high-definition Plasma can produce high quality cuts similar to laser cutting process in some applications, significantly reducing operating and investment costs related to the equipment.
Laser Beam Cutting (LBC) -
Laser cutting is a process of thermal cutting that allows to obtain a highly localized fusion or vaporization through the heat originated by a beam of polarized light, assisted by a high pressured gas. The assisting gas is used to remove molten and sublimated materials from the laser beam path. With the laser process it is possible to cut metal and non-metal materials. The laser beam is often emitted at a high power to increase the cut speed.
The most common type of industrial laser sources are the Carbon Dioxide and the yttrium aluminum crystal (Nd:YAG). A CO2 laser uses a gas (CO2) electronically excited to produce a light that polarized creates a laser beam; while Nd:YaG laser uses a crystalline/solid material that electronically excited generates a light that can be easily directed by optical fiber. Both Co2 laser and Nd:YAG systems are available with power up to 15 Kw depending on the necessities of different industrial applications.
Realized through a specific automatic system, the laser cutting provides highly reproducible results with a narrow kerf width and a minimal Heat Affected Zone, achieving a cut with a limited heat distortion.The process is flexible, of easy automation and provides high cut speed and an excellent cut quality. The Technological Development contributes to the reduction of the investment costs, thanks in part to the constant increase of the productivity of these plants.